Japan is often depicted as a country where the past and present co-exist; however, many Japanese openly admit that they do not understand classical Japanese literature (i.e. Japanese literature prior to 1868). This presents a disjunction: on the one hand you have the claim of the co-existence of the past and present; on the other you have an actual gap between classical Japanese literature and present-day Japanese. This disjunction allows for a number of questions to be raised particularly of fictional rewritings of classical Japanese literature by modern Japanese authors. How do adaptations of classical Japanese literature by modern authors frame and present the relationship between classical Japanese literature and the society of their time? What challenges to the frame and presentation appear when the adaptations are compared to the original texts? What other possible relationship(s) become apparent when the adaptations and the original texts are considered together?