The legacy of the Qing dynasty in the territorial boundaries claimed by the People's Republic of China including the frontier zones that lie outside China proper. How the Qing acquired and ruled its frontier territories. Growth and migration of the Han Chinese population. How the dynasty's Manchu rulers managed ethnic difference. Consequences of Qing expansionism and ethnic statecraft for subject peoples and for the dynasty itself. At what point and by what processes did the Qing become China.